Prof. Dr. habil. Dr. med. h.c. mult. Willi A. Kalender, Ph.D.

Phone: +49-(0)9131-85-22310


Work Areas
  • Medical Physics
  • Diagnostic Imaging
  • Image Processing
  • Patient Dose Assessment
Scientific career
1970-1972 Studies of Physics and Mathematics, University of Bonn, Germany
1972-1975 Medical Physics University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin, USA
1974 Master's Degree in Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin, USA
1976-1979 Research Assistant, Siemens Medical Systems, Erlangen, Germany
1979 Ph.D. in Radiological Sciences, University of Wisconsin, Madison,
1979-1983 Research Physicist, Siemens Medical Systems, Erlangen, Germany
1983-1988 Head of the CT applications group, Siemens Medical Systems
1988 Dr. habil. in Medical Physics, University of Tübingen, Germany
1988-1995 Head of the Medical Physics group, Siemens Medical Systems
1995-pres. Professor and Chairman, Institute of Medical Physics, University of Erlangen
1992-2009 Visiting Professor, Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, USA
1996-2010 Chairman of the Erlangen Physics & Medicine Society
(Societas Physico Medica Erlangensis, founded in 1808)
1998-2009 Member of the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurement (ICRU)
2001-pres. Distinguished Visiting Professor, Department of Radiology, Stanford Univer­sity, USA
2005-2007 Board Member-at-large of the Board of Directors of the American Association of Physicists
2009-pres. Curator of the Fraunhofer Institute MEVIS (Medical Imaging)
2009-pres. Elected Member of the German Academy of Sciences Leopoldina
Spinoffs (founded by W.A. Kalender)
1994 QRM GmbH Quality control tools and phantoms
1997 CT Imaging GmbH Special CT hard- and software, e.g. breast CT
1998 CAS Innovations AG Computer-assisted surgery hard- and software
1998 PET Net GmbH

PET radiopharmacy, production & R&D

2008 PET Net Solutions GmbH PET tracer licencing, GMP manufacturing etc.
2011 PET Net München GmbH

PET radiopharmacy, production & R&D

Awards and Honors
2002 FAAPM, Honorary Fellowship of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM)
2003 Galileo Galilei Award by the European Federation of Organizations of Medical Physics (EFOMP)
2004 Cross of the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany by the President of the Federal Republic of Germany
2005 Hermann-Rieder-Medaille by the German Society of Radiology (DRG)
2006 Metropolregion Prize by Europäische Metropolregion Nürnberg, Germany
2007 International Steven Hoogendijk Award in Medical Engineering by the Bataafsch Genootschap der Proefondervindelijke Wijsbegeerte, Rotterdam, NL
2007 European Latsis Prize 2007 by the European Science Foundation (ESF)
2008 Roentgen-Plakette by the City of Remscheid (WC Roentgen's birth place), Germany
2009 Dr. med. h. c. (honorary doctoral degree in medicine) awarded by the Medical Faculty of the RWTH Aachen, Germany
2009 Honorary Membership of the European Society of Radiology (ESR)
2009 Grashey Medal by the Bavarian Roentgen Society
2009 Elected member of the German Academy of Sciences Leopoldina
2009 William D. Coolidge Award by the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM)
2010 Ziedses des Plantes-Medaille by the German Society of Neuroradiology
2011 Dr. med. h. c. (honorary doctoral degree in medicine) awarded by the Medical Faculty of the University of Zurich, Switzerland
2012 FBIR, Honorary Fellowship of the British Institute of Radiology (BIR), UK
2013 Gray Medal by the International Commission on Radiation Units & Measurements (ICRU)
2013 Pauwels-Medaille by the German Society of Orthopaedics and Orthopaedic Surgery (DGOOC)
2014 Glocker-Medaille by the German Society of Medical Physics (DGGMP)


Alfred-Breit-Preis by the German Röntgen Society (DRG)


Elected Member of the National Academy of Engineering, USA
Other Activities
1995-2001 Chairman of the 3rd, 4th, 5th and 6th International Workshop on Computer-Assisted Surgery & Rapid Prototyping in Medicine
1998-2001 Initiator and Spokesperson of FORBILD, the Bavarian Center of Excellence for Medical Imaging and Image Processing
2002 President of the 3rd International Conference on Cardiac Spiral CT
2005 President of the 14th International Conference of Medical Physics, Nuremberg, Germany, Sept. 14-17, 2005
2008-2010 Principal Investigator and Spokesperson of a EU/FP7 project: “Dedicated CT of the Female Breast: Feasibility, optimization and comparison to competing imaging modalities”
2006-2012 Initiator and Spokesperson of the DFG (German Science Foundation)-Forschergruppe 661: „Multimodal Imaging in Pre-clinical Research”
  Member of the editorial board of European Radiology, Medical Physics, Physica Medica and others and reviewer for numerous scientific journals
Type of publication
Original scientific publication
Review article, Invited publication
Textbook contribution
Proceedings volume
Published abstract
IMP Reports

Selected Publictions

  • Kuttig JD, Steiding C, Kolditz D, Hupfer M, Karolczak M, Kalender WA. Comparative investigation of the detective quantum efficiency of direct and indirect conversion detector technologies in dedicated breast CT. Physica Medica 2015; 31: 406-413
  • Steiding C, Kolditz D, Kalender WA. Comparison of methods for acceptance and constancy testing in dental cone-beam computed tomography. (Methodenvergleich zur Abnahme- und Konstanzprüfung in der dentalen digitalen Volumentomografie) RöFo 2015 ; 187(4): 283-290
  • Rößler AC, Wenkel E, Althoff F, Kalender W. The influence of patient positioning in breast CT on breast tissue coverage and patient comfort. RöFo 2015; 187(2): 115-122
  • Kalender WA, Saltybaeva N, Kolditz D, Beister M, Schmidt B. Generating und using combined whole-body patient models for accurate dose estimates in CT: feasibility and validation. Physica Medica 2014; 30(8): 925-933
  • Lück F, Kolditz D, Hupfer M, Steiding C, Kalender WA. Experimental validation of a single shaped filter approach for CT using variable source-to-filter distance for examination of arbitrary object diameters. Phys Med Biol 2014; 59(19): 5691-5706
  • Saltybaeva N, Jafari ME, Hupfer M, Kalender WA. Estimates of Effective Dose for CT Scans of the Lower Extremities. Radiology 2014; 273(1): 153-159
  • Steiding C, Kolditz D, Kalender WA. A quality assurance framework for the fully automated and objective evaluation of image quality in cone-beam computed tomography. Med Phys 2014; 41(3):031901
  • Kalender WA. Dose in x-ray computed tomography. Phys Med Biol 2014; 59 R129-R150
  • Schmidt B, Saltybaeva N, Kolditz D, Kalender WA. Assessment of patient dose from CT localizer radiographs. Med Phys. 2013 Aug; 40(8):084301
  • Lück F, Kolditz D, Hupfer M, Kalender WA. Effect of shaped filter design on dose and image quality in breast CT. Phys. Med. Biol. 2013; 58(21): 4205-4223
  • Wicklein J, Kunze H, Kalender WA, Kyriakou Y. Image features for misalignment correction in medical flat-detector CT. Med Phys 2012; 39(8): 4916-4931
  • Yohannes I, Kolditz D, Langner O, Kalender WA. A formulation of tissue- and water-equivalent materials using the stoichiometric analysis method for CT-number calibration in radiotherapy treatment planning. Phys Med Biol 2012;             57(5): 1173-1190
  • Chen W, Kolditz D, Beister M, Bohle R, Kalender WA. Fast on-site Monte Carlo tool for dose calculations in CT applications.
    Med Phys 2012; 39(6): 2985-2996

  • Nowak T, Hupfer M, Althoff F, Brauweiler R, Eisa F, Steiding C, Kalender WA. Time-delayed summation as a means of improving resolution on fast rotating computed tomography systems. Med Phys 2012; 39(4): 2249-2260

  • Beister M, Kolditz D, Kalender WA. Iterative reconstruction methods in x-ray CT. Eur J of Med Phys 2012; 28: 94-108

  • Kolditz D, Struffert T, Kyriakou Y, Bozzato A, Dörfler A, Kalender WA. Volume-of-interest imaging of the inner ear in a human temporal bone specimen using a robot-driven C-arm flat panel detector CT system. Am J of Neuroradiology 2012; 33(10): E124-128.

  • Kalender WA, Beister M, Boone JM, Kolditz D, Vollmar SV, Weigel MCC. High-resolution spiral CT of the breast at very low dose: concept and feasibility considerations. European Radiology 2012; 21(1): 1-8

  • Kalender WA. Computed tomography. Fundamentals, System Technology, Image Quality, Applications. 3 rd ed. Publicis Erlangen 2011

  • Kyriakou Y, Kolditz D, Langer O, Kalender WA. Digitale Volumentomografie (DVT) und Mehrschicht Spiral-CT (MSCT): eine objektive Untersuchung von Dosis und Bildqualität. Fortschr Röntgenstr 2011;183(2): 144-153

  • Weigel M, Vollmar S, Kalender WA. Spectral optimization for dedicated breast CT. Med Phys 2011; 38(1): 114-124

  • Prell D, Kyriakou Y, Kachelrieß M, Kalender WA. Reducing metal artifacts in computed tomography caused by hip endoprotheses using a physics-based approach. Investigative Radiology 2010; 45(11): 747-754

  • Ertel D, Lell MM, Harig F, Flohr T, Schmidt B, Kalender WA. Cardiac spiral dual-source CT with high pitch: a feasibility study. Eur Rad 2009; 19(10): 2357-2362

  • Lapp RM, Kyriakou Y, Kachelrieß M, Wilharm S, Kalender WA. Interactively variable isotropic resolution in computed tomography. Phys Med Biol 2008; 53: 2693-2713

  • Achenbach S, Anders K, Kalender WA. Dual-source cardiac computed tomography: image quality and dose considerations. Eur Radiol 2008; 18: 1188-1198

  • Deak P, van Straten M, Shrimpton PC, Zankl M, Kalender WA. Validation of a Monte Carlo tool for patient-specific dose simulations in multi-slice computed tomography. Eur Radiol 2008; 18: 759-772

  • McCollough CH, Ulzheimer S, Halliburton SS, Shanneik K, White RD, Kalender WA. Coronary artery calcium: A multiinstitutional, multimanufacturer international standard for quantification at cardiac CT. Radiology 2007; 243 (2): 527-538

  • Kalender WA. X-ray Computed Tomography. Phys Med Biol 2006; 51: R29-R43

  • Schmidt B, Kalender WA. A fast voxel-based Monte Carlo method for scanner- and patient specific dose calculations in computed tomography. Physica Medica 2002; XVIII (2) April-June: 43-53

  • Kachelrieß M, Watzke O, Kalender WA. Generalized multi-dimensional adaptive filtering for conventional and spiral single-slice, multi-slice, and cone-beam CT. Med. Phys. 2001; 28(4): 475-490

  • Kachelrieß M, Ulzheimer S, Kalender WA. ECG-correlated imaging of the heart with subsecond multi-slice spiral CT. IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging 2000; 19 (9): 888-901

  • Kalender WA, Wolf H, Suess C, Gies M, Bautz WA. Dose reduction in CT by anatomically adapted tube current modulation: II. Phantom measurements. Medical Physics 1999, 26(11): 2248-2253.

  • Kalender WA, Schmidt B, Schmidt M, Zankl M. A PC program for estimating organ dose and effective dose values in computed tomography. Eur Radiol, 1999, 9: 555-562.

  • Kachelrieß M, Kalender WA. ECG-correlated image reconstruction from subsecond Spiral CT scans of the heart. Medical Physics, 1998, 25(12): 2417-2431.

  • Kalender WA, Felsenberg D, Genant HK, Fischer M, Dequeker J, Reeve J. The European Spine Phantom - a tool for standardization and quality control in spinal bone mineral measurements by DXA and QCT. Eur. J. Radiol., 1995, 20: 83-92.

  • Kalender WA, Rienmüller R, Seißler W, Behr J, Welke M, Fichte H. Spirometric gating for measuring pulmonary parenchymal density by quantitative computed tomography. Radiology 1990; 175: 265-268

  • Kalender WA, Seissler W, Klotz E, Vock P. Spiral volumetric CT with single-breathhold technique, continuous transport, and continuous scanner rotation. Radiology, 1990, 176(1): 181-183.

  • Kalender WA, Klotz E, Süß C. An integral approach to vertebral bone mineral analysis by X-ray computed tomography. Radiology 1987; 164: 419-423

  • Kalender WA, Hebel R, Ebersberger J. Reduction of CT artifacts caused by metallic implants. Radiology 1987; 164: 576-577

  • Kalender WA. Monte Carlo calculations of X-ray scatter data for diagnostic radiology. Phys Med Biol 1981; 26: 835-849